The Science of Flint’s Water Crisis

The water crisis in Flint, Michigan is a prime example of science being ignored, unknown, or even misused. Here’s the chemistry behind how so many things went wrong.

Hosted by: Hank Green

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Sources:

https://www.michigan.gov/documents/treasury/Edward_Kurtz_Contract_394722_7.pdf
https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/04/20/465545378/lead-laced-water-in-flint-a-step-by-step-look-at-the-makings-of-a-crisis
https://www.michigan.gov/som/0,4669,7-192-29942_34762-381701–,00.html

Lead pipes
https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/full/10.2105/AJPH.2007.113555
https://www.awwa.org/resources-tools/public-affairs/press-room/press-release/articleid/4074/lead-ser.aspx
https://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/topics/agents/lead/index.cfm

Corrosion Protection
https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-03/documents/occtmarch2016.pdf
https://cen.acs.org/articles/94/i7/Lead-Ended-Flints-Tap-Water.html

Chloride & Chlorine
http://www.corrosionjournal.org/doi/abs/10.5006/1.3600449?code=NACE-prem-site
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-does-chlorine-added-t/
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273749642_Comparison_of_Chlorine_and_Chloramines_on_Lead_Release_from_Copper_Pipe_Rigs
https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncer_abstracts/index.cfm/fuseaction/display.highlight/abstract/22
https://www.cityofflint.com/wp-content/uploads/Flint-TTHM-Operational-Evaluation-Report-August-2015.pdf
https://www.cityofflint.com/wp-content/uploads/TTHM-Notification-Final.pdf
https://www.cdc.gov/safewater/publications_pages/thm.pdf

Legionnaires
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5353852/
http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2018/02/was-flint-s-deadly-legionnaires-epidemic-caused-low-chlorine-levels-water-supply
https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2018/02/05/582482024/lethal-pneumonia-outbreak-caused-by-low-chlorine-in-flint-water
https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/article/flint-water-crisis-deaths-likely-surpass-official-toll/
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2018/01/31/1718679115

Protocols
https://www.michigan.gov/documents/snyder/FWATF_FINAL_REPORT_21March2016_517805_7.pdf
http://flintwaterstudy.org/2015/08/hazardous-waste-levels-of-lead-found-in-a-flint-households-water/
http://www.michiganradio.org/post/states-instructions-sampling-drinking-water-lead-not-best-practice
https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-11/documents/drinking_water_sample_collection.pdf
https://www.michigan.gov/documents/deq/Lead_Copper_Sampling_Instructions_329915_7.pdf
http://flintwaterstudy.org/information-for-flint-residents/results-for-citizen-testing-for-lead-300-kits/
http://www.cescenter.com/documents/Regulatory%20Limits%20for%20Contaminants%20of%20Concern.pdf

Lead Poisoning
https://academic.oup.com/brain/article/126/1/5/299373
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19644200

Conclusion
https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/chemical-study-ground-zero-house-flint-water-crisis-180962030/
https://www.cityofflint.com/wp-content/uploads/Adding-Extra-Phosphate-to-Flint-Water-09-Copy.pdf
http://www.michiganradio.org/post/flints-lead-pipe-replacement-program-moves-forward-under-new-management

Images:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lead_pipe_-_Bath_Roman_Baths.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DSC00125_-_Tubi_di_piombo_romani_-_Foto_di_G._Dall%27Orto.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Flint_skyline2.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Severe_Pneumonia_Caused_by_Legionella_pneumophila_Serogroup_11,_Italy.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Legionella_pneumophila_01.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Iron(III)_chloride_hexahydrate.jpg

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